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New York


New York

The region around the modern New York was originally inhabited by the Lenape Native Americans. Florentine explorer Giovanni da Verrazano, in the service of the French crown, assigned by King Francis I, was the first European that landed in New York Bay in 1524. Verrazzano discovered the region of Manhattan, which the natives called "Manahatta", but also the river that was later named Hudson River, in the honour of the explorer Henry Hudson.

European colonization began on the 3rd of September 1609, when the Englishman Henry Hudson, in the service of the Dutch West Indian Company, sailed here for the first time. In 1613, the Dutch West Indian Company founded here the colony Nieuw Nederland and in 1626, Minnewit Peter, a German in the service of the same company was responsible for establishing a new trading colony on the southern part of the Manhattan Island, called Nieuw Amsterdam. Around this first establishment, new settlements emerged thanks to the rapid development of this new commercial centre. After the 17th century, these settlements are known as the small towns of Bronx, Brooklyn, Queens and Staten Island. In 1664, Peter Stuyvesant, governor of the colony, surrendered to the British, who renamed the city to New York in honor of the Duke of York. Five years later, the Dutch retook the colony. But in the end, came under permanent British rule in 1674. The first written testimony of New York City dates from 1683.

In 1754, Columbia University was founded by George II of Great Britain as King's College in Lower Manhattan.
New York has experienced the horror and confusion, through several wars and armed conflicts. The city played an important role during America's struggle for independence. From the Battle of Long Island in 1776 and until the end of the War of Independence in 1783, New York was occupied by British troops. On September 13, 1788, New York became the first capital of the United States and on April 30, 1789, the first U.S. president, George Washington, was officially invested at Federal Hall on Wall Street. In 1790, Philadelphia became the second capital of the United States, but in the same year New York beat Philadelphia as the largest city in the United States.
The city was severely affected by two fires that occurred in 1776 and 1778, but in subsequent years has benefited from a flourishing trade.

With a prime coastal location, New York has developed rapidly. Many immigrants began arriving here from all over the world, and the population grew rapidly, reaching about 100,000 in the early 19th century. Also, in the 19th century, New York was not only the largest city in the United States, but also a symbol of growth and prosperity, but at that time 1 in 7 people in the city were living in poverty. Because of the rapid growth it was necessary to elaborate an ambitious urban expansion plan, the Commissioners' Plan of 1811, which expanded the network of city streets to cover all of Manhattan. In 1857 works and planning were completed for the Central Park, the first landscaped park in an American city.
During the Civil War (1861 - 1865), the population of New York, because of close trade relations with the South and the large number of immigrants, was divided into two groups, which led to riots in 1863. After the war, the rate of immigration from Europe was increasing progressively, New York becoming the first stop for millions of people who were adventuring to America seeking a better life – this movement has been recognized by the building of the Statue of Liberty in 1886. In 1883, Brooklyn Bridge was opened, linking Brooklyn with the isle of Manhattan. With 1052 meters long, at that time, was the longest suspension bridge in the world and the first built entirely of steel. In 1898, the old districts of the Bronx, Brooklyn, Manhattan, Queens and Richmond (Staten Island) joined in a single administrative district forming the modern New York.

In the first half of the 20th century, the city became a world centre for industry, commerce and communications. In 1904, the first transportation company operated underground. In 1925, New York became the world's most populous city, overtaking London. In the 30's, despite the Great Depression, in New York numerous skyscrapers were built. In the period before and after the Second World War, in the area were built bridges, parks and promenades. New York emerged intact from the Second World War and became the most important city in the world.
Like other U.S. cities, New York suffered a decline in population and industrial capacity in the 60’s, but returned to its status as a financial centre after 1980, with the rise of Wall Street. In addition, since 1990 the crime rate declined, a fact that caught the attention of immigrants.
On September 11, 2001, New York has suffered a terrorist attack that killed nearly 3,000 people and destroyed the twin towers of World Trade Center. A tower of freedom will be raised in their place.

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